Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks

TitleReview of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsPelzel-McCluskey A, Christensen B, Humphreys J, Bertram M, Keener R, Ewing R, Cohnstaedt LW, Tell R, Peters DC, Rodriguez LL
Journal Pathogens
Date Published8-6-2021
ARIS Log Number386969
Keywordsequine; livestock disease; vector-borne disease outbreak; vesicular stomatitis

Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vector-borne livestock disease caused by vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) or vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV). The disease circulates endemically in northern South America, Central America, and Mexico and only occasionally causes
outbreaks in the United States. Over the past 20 years, VSNJV outbreaks in the southwestern and
Rocky Mountain regions occurred with incursion years followed by virus overwintering and subsequent expansion outbreak years. Regulatory response by animal health officials is deployed to prevent spread from lesioned animals. The 2019 VS incursion was the largest in 40 years, lasting from June to December 2019 with 1144 VS-affected premises in 111 counties in eight states (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) and was VSIV serotype, last isolated in 1998. A subsequent expansion occurred from April to October 2020 with 326 VS affected premises in 70 counties in eight states (Arizona, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas). The primary serotype in 2020 was VSIV, but a separate incursion of VSNJV occurred in south Texas. Summary characteristics of the outbreaks are presented along with VSV-vector sampling results and phylogenetic analysis of VSIV isolates providing evidence of virus overwintering.